What moms need to know about vision in a newborn baby

What moms need to know about vision in a newborn baby

09.07.2022 0 By admin

How does a baby’s vision develop up to a year? At what age does a child begin to see like an adult? What is the norm? Can parents notice vision pathologies in a child? These questions are answered by Igor Erikovich Aznauryan , Doctor of Medical Sciences, Professor, pediatric eye surgeon, refractive surgeon, pediatric ophthalmologist, ophthalmic surgeon, founder and head of the Yasny Vzor Eye Clinic Association, President of the Association of Ophthalmologists and Strabismologists.

Infant age is the most responsible, and mothers rightly worry whether everything is in order with their baby, whether he is developing correctly. How is vision formed in a child up to a year? What should parents pay attention to?

Newborn vision
The first full examination is recommended at 2 months.

The first quick examination takes place in the hospital, when, roughly speaking, they look to see if the eyes are in place. No one will tell you more information right away.

In the first months, the mother must ensure that the child opens his eyes. It must be understood that children are born with only 2% vision. Over the next two months, it begins to develop quite rapidly. Every day more and more tracking movements appear (when a child follows an object with his eyes while his head is level). By two months, these movements are clearly manifested. During this period, it is important to conduct the first examination to check if there are any violations in the transparent media of the eye, and so on.

From the age of 6 months, we recommend an examination of the optical system of the eye to make sure that there is no myopia, hyperopia, astigmatism. If everything is fine, then by the year ophthalmologists conduct another examination, already more complete, with an enlarged pupil, when strabismus, partial atrophy of the optic nerve, nystagmus (the eyes “run”, the gaze does not focus), myopia, hyperopia, astigmatism can be detected and to suggest the future development of amblyopia (when one, the so-called lazy eye, is gradually turned off from the visual process).

If one or both parents have a visual defect or a predisposition to certain diseases, such as myopia or astigmatism, and the child has inherited it, then there is no reason to worry – all this is treated with modern medicine.

When does the development of visual functions in a child end? By what age does a child see in the same way as an adult (can focus on small details or, conversely, look “through”)?

The main development of the visual system in humans, as a biological species, ends at the age of 3 and then, under normal conditions, does not change throughout life. Therefore, a diagnosed congenital or early pathology must be treated as early as possible, otherwise the development of the visual system is distorted or stopped. Fine tuning of vision continues to develop up to 7 years due to the peculiarities of changes in the musculoskeletal system and the speech mechanism.

At what stage can pathologies or various eye diseases be noticed?

Often there are cases when there are no external signs of the disease. The best way not to miss the possible presence of a pathology is to examine the child in a timely manner with a qualified doctor.

What may look like a pathology, but is actually the norm?

Sometimes it seems as if newborn children squint their eyes. In fact, the eyes are straight, but there is an illusion of strabismus due to the wide bridge of the nose and close-set eyes in babies. Over time, the child develops a skeleton, this illusion disappears. Because of this, there is also a reverse misconception: if a child has a real strabismus, it disappears with age. In fact, this is not at all the case.

It is very important for mothers to notice problems in the early stages, so they need to know the main symptoms. What can indicate problems with vision in a child? Name the most common early signs.

Newborn vision deviation
It is very difficult to determine the presence of some kind of deviation without a full examination by a doctor.

It often happens that the parent may not detect anything, especially at an early stage of the pathology. The doctor should pay attention to any deviation.

It happens that one eye does not see well, while the child does not show any signs of poor vision. Until the doctor conducts an examination, such a manifestation may not be detected. If the disease has already progressed, it is not uncommon for the parent to notice signs of the disease, such as strabismus or poor vision. That is why doctors determine the periods when it is recommended to conduct examinations.

It should be noted that not every doctor is able to identify the disease. Therefore, the choice of a doctor should be taken very carefully: he should be a specialist who has undergone appropriate training and is a member of the Association of Pediatric Ophthalmologists and Strabismologists in Russia. If parents bring their child for examination to qualified specialists at all recommended age periods, this will allow diagnosing the disease in the early stages, if any.

What diseases are most common in infancy and early childhood? What is important for parents to pay attention to?

The most common diseases in infancy and early life are: congenital obstruction of the lacrimal ducts (occurs for many reasons), astigmatism (vision defect caused by a change in the shape of the cornea, lens, or the eye itself), farsightedness, or hypermetropia (a condition when plus lenses are needed, to see well), nearsightedness or myopia (a condition when you need minus lenses to see well), strabismus, a serious illness – nystagmus (repetitive involuntary eye movement).

How far has medicine advanced in the treatment of eye diseases? Is it possible to say that now, with early and accurate diagnosis of the disease, the chances of recovery and preservation of vision are close to 100%?

Vision in newborns
Now many diseases associated with vision are successfully treated.

This is a very ambitious and not entirely true statement. It all depends on the disease itself. Nevertheless, today we can treat a lot of things that were impossible 50 years ago, so that the child goes to school without glasses, with even eyes and at the same time sees well.

Of course, there are still diseases that cannot be cured. For example, complete congenital atrophy of the optic nerves. But even in this case, in some pathologies, we can improve conditions that were previously considered completely incurable.

How often should a child undergo preventive examinations by an ophthalmologist?

Up to a year, an examination at the age of two and then six months is necessary. A more complete examination is carried out in one year. If all is well, then you can forget about everything up to three years. At three years, it is necessary to conduct an examination again, and if everything is normal, the next examination should be carried out before school. At school age, it is necessary to be examined every year.

There are congenital pathologies, such as congenital glaucoma, cataracts, and there are acquired ones, for example, myopia. What can parents do to prevent children from developing vision problems?

If the pathologies are congenital, you will no longer carry out any prophylaxis, since the child was born with this. For the prevention of acquired diseases, it is necessary to visit a qualified doctor in time, in the presence of a pathology, he will detect the problem and offer treatment.

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