What is the norm of CA 125 tumor marker in women25.05.2022
The norm of the CA-125 tumor marker in women is an indicator of the health of the organs of the reproductive system, due to the low oncological risk for the current period. Oncomarkers themselves are specific substances produced by a malignant tumor of oncological patients.
What does the CA-125 tumor marker mean?
Oncomarker CA-125 is a specific protein compound, a glycoprotein, which is formed on the membrane of ovarian tissue cells in malignant tumors.
The norm of the CA-125 tumor marker in women should not exceed 100 IU / ml
Normally, a highly specific protein can appear in the blood in small quantities, be determined by histological examination in the serous and endometrial membranes. An increase in the level of CA-125 may be due to non-oncological factors:
- sexual infections – up to 75%;
- violation of menstruation of any nature – up to 75%;
- endometriosis of the uterus – 85%;
- polycystic ovaries – up to 80%;
- inflammation of the heart muscle;
- peritonitis, pleurisy;
- cirrhosis of the liver;
- pregnancy – only the first trimester;
- active phase of the menstrual cycle.
All these diseases affect the increase in the level of SA, so the indicator is evaluated in conjunction with other laboratory and instrumental studies.
Oncomarker CA-125 steadily increases with malignancy of cells of the epithelial tissue of the ovaries, but sometimes characterizes the development of an oncological tumor of the endometrium, stomach, liver.
Ovarian tumor markers may increase slightly during pregnancy, lactation, inflammation, and other diseases of the internal organs. With a persistent and significant increase in the CA-125 tumor marker, an oncological process is suspected, but the final diagnosis is made on the basis of several diagnostic criteria.
Why check ovarian tumor markers
An analysis for the norm of the CA-125 tumor marker in women is carried out according to the following indications:
- persistent menstrual irregularities;
- chronic pathologies of the genitourinary system;
- pain during sexual intercourse;
- hematuric syndrome – the appearance of blood in the urine;
- violation of the psycho-emotional background, mood variability;
- increased fatigue;
- an increase in the volume of the abdomen of various nature and the development of ascites.
The danger of an oncological tumor lies in a long asymptomatic course. Patients who have not undergone clinical examination for years, go to the doctor already at a late stage of the disease, with metastases. It is early diagnosis and timely treatment that largely determine the prognosis.
What this analysis shows
The CA-125 blood test is widely used for the primary diagnosis of ovarian cancer, assessment of the tactics and effectiveness of anticancer therapy. The analysis is also prescribed for existing tumors to prevent metastases. Usually, metastatic foci from a tumor in the ovaries are noted in the uterus, lungs, chest, and liver. With the penetration of metastases into neighboring tissues and organs, the CA-125 antigen will increase accordingly.
When deciphering, the woman’s medical history, her age and other criteria must be taken into account
The specificity of the analysis for ovarian tumor markers is not high due to the influence of physiological processes occurring in the body, therefore, for the reliability of the results, it is recommended to take tests at least 2-3 times. It is especially important to repeat the study in women with an unstable menstrual cycle, problems with reproductive health, older than 45-55 years.
An additional study is carried out if the results differ each time. Of great importance is the analysis of ovarian tumor markers in the diagnosis of epithelial carcinomas, adenocarcinomas of the fallopian tubes and ovaries.
Blood for tumor markers is an important diagnostic test that is carried out for the early prevention of ovarian cancer, if an oncological process is suspected. Today, blood tests for tumor markers are included in the list of mandatory medical examinations for women over 30 years old. For a few days, fatty foods, alcohol, sweet soda, natural juices with sugar are excluded from the diet. Do not smoke on the day of the test. The studied material is venous blood. The analysis is handed over on an empty stomach.
If a woman takes oral contraceptives, other medications, then this must be indicated on the referral form. When deciphering, the day of the woman’s menstrual cycle is also taken into account.
Normally, the CA-125 tumor marker in women should not exceed 30 IU / ml, where IU is an international unit. However, in some cases, an increase to 100 IU / ml is allowed. An indicator of 100 IU / ml is a certain threshold for the absence of malignant processes in the body. During pregnancy, such indicators can rise to 1200 IU / ml, but more often the indicator differs slightly. Borderline values tending to 100 IU / ml – the norm, occur during menopause, complicated pregnancy, lactation.
An increase in the level of the CA-125 antigen in the blood during pregnancy requires special monitoring by physicians, including in cases where there are pathologies of the uterine appendages, previously diagnosed ovarian cancer.
CA values at the highest limit of normal do not require treatment, however, it is important to further monitor the CA-125 criterion to prevent the risks of degeneration of ovarian cells.
Read more: Roma Index Norm and Deviations