The defeat of the fungus Candida albicans in women: symptoms and treatment25.05.2022
Candida albicans is a sexually transmitted fungus that causes urogenital candidiasis in 80% of cases. But depending on the area of u200bu200bdistribution of the microorganism, it can provoke other diseases.
Description of the fungus
Candida albicans inhabits the natural microflora of the human body. In a small amount, this fungus is useful – it participates in biochemical processes, promotes the production of vitamins K and B12.
The main characteristics of the microorganism:
- cells are rounded, have a rigid cell wall. Therefore, the fungus is quite resistant to external influences, including drugs. This distinguishes the microorganism from most other bacteria that cause diseases of the genitourinary system. For example, Mycoplasma hominis has a thin cell wall;
- sustainability. The optimum temperature for it is 21-37 degrees, so it can exist inside the human body. Does not die with a single freeze. But sensitive to high temperatures, formalin, phenol;
- growth on a dense medium in the form of colonies of a creamy consistency, and in a liquid one – in the form of a precipitate or film.
A number of factors contribute to the active reproduction of the fungus. This is a long-term use of antibiotics, the use of oral contraceptives, malnutrition, frequent stress, chronic illness, hormonal disorders in the body. Colonies of the microorganism affect the skin and mucous membranes of the female intimate area. A man can become infected through unprotected sex.
Symptoms depend on the location of the pathological process. The fungus can cause the following diseases:
- Candidal onychia and paronychia with lesions of the skin around the nails. The nail roller swells, turns red, crawls onto the surface of the nail. The skin between the fingers may also be affected. It itches, flakes, covered with small bubbles. Nails become rough, acquire a yellowish tint.
- Candidamicides. Observed with hypersensitivity to the microorganism and its toxins. The main symptom of the disease is allergic red rashes on the skin.
- Inflammation of the gastrointestinal mucosa. There are flatulence, belching, stool disturbance, the presence of white flakes in the feces and other signs.
- Inflammation of the urinary system. Accompanied by frequent urination, pain and burning during it.
- Oral thrush. A white coating appears on the oral mucosa and tongue. The fungus can affect the gums, they become swollen and painful. Stomatitis may also develop, in which ulcers form on the mucosa.
- Vaginal candidiasis. The disease is characterized by the appearance of the following symptoms: cheesy white discharge, sour smell from the vagina, redness of the mucous membrane, discomfort in the perineum. Also, candidiasis can lead to menstrual irregularities, lack of orgasm, and discomfort during sex. This disease often appears in pregnant women against the background of reduced immunity and sudden hormonal changes. Also, during the period of gestation, an intensive production of glycogen begins in the vagina, so it becomes an ideal environment for the vital activity of fungi.
- Men can become infected from women with vaginal candidiasis during unprotected sex. A fungus enters the urethra, causing damage to the mucous membrane. There are pains when urinating, the head of the penis turns red, a white coating appears on the foreskin, the color of the urine changes. Numerous red rashes may appear in the perineal area, inguinal lymph nodes increase, and an unpleasant odor is observed. Candidal balanitis or balanoposthitis occurs.
If you experience the above symptoms, you should immediately consult a doctor!
To detect the fungus Candida albicans in women, the following methods are prescribed:
- Microscopic analysis of a smear from the urethra and vagina. The material taken is stained and examined under a microscope. The smear may show blastoconidia, pseudomycelium, or mycelium. Such a study also helps to identify sexually transmitted diseases. For example, bacteriological examination may reveal Chlamydia trachomatis, which will indicate chlamydia. This method is based on staining microorganisms in different colors, which indicates their resistance to drugs. Candida albicans stains purple and is highly sensitive to drugs.
- PCR. A very accurate method for detecting fungus. The result is positive when the DNA of the microorganism is found in the blood, urine or saliva – normally it should not be. Such a study helps to detect other microorganisms. For example, thrush can occur together with urogenital ureaplasmosis, which is caused by the microorganism Ureaplasma parvum.
- Linked immunosorbent assay. Allows you to detect antibodies in the blood to a pathogenic microorganism.
- Serological studies. A large amount of antibodies in the blood, which are normally absent, will indicate a fungal infection.
- bacteriological research. It is aimed at detecting the pathogen and determining its resistance to antimycotic agents. The material for analysis can be feces, urine, sputum, discharge from the vagina and urethra. The biomaterial is sown on a special Saburo medium. Then it is sent to a thermostat for 3–5 days, where it is kept at a temperature of 220–240°C. The amount of fungus in a smear should not exceed 10 * 4 CFU / ml. If it is more, antifungal therapy is mandatory. In urine and feces, the norm of the fungus is 10 * 3 CFU / ml.
Only after confirmation of the fungal infection, therapy is prescribed!
For treatment, antifungal agents are used. In the case of a mild form of the disease, topical preparations are prescribed – antimycotic suppositories.
If frequent relapses occur, and the patient’s condition deteriorates sharply, there is a need for complex treatment. The following aspects must be taken into account.
- Antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulating agents, vitamins are prescribed.
- If a man has developed balanoposthitis, he is recommended to apply antimicrobial creams to the affected areas. The drug and dosage are selected by the doctor.
- Pregnant women are allowed to use only local agents that do not adversely affect the fetus.
- Be sure to follow a diet with the exception of sweet and starchy foods. In a sweet environment, the fungus multiplies rapidly. It is necessary to drink at least 2 liters of fluid per day, due to which toxins will be removed from the body faster.
- During therapy, it is not recommended to have sex. Otherwise, you can injure the inflamed mucous membrane of the genital organs.
- Both partners should take medication at once, even if the man does not have any unpleasant symptoms.
To prevent the appearance of candidiasis, it is necessary to strengthen the immune system, get rid of bad habits, adjust your diet, and not engage in unprotected sex. It is necessary to wear underwear only from natural fabrics. Only hypoallergenic compositions are suitable for washing the intimate area, you can also wash with a weak infusion of chamomile or clean water.
If Candida albicans is found in a woman, therapy should be started immediately. In no case should you stop therapy after the disappearance of symptoms. After completing the course of treatment, it may be necessary to pass control tests.
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