Obstruction of the fallopian tubes – causes and treatment

Obstruction of the fallopian tubes – causes and treatment

25.05.2022 0 By admin

Obstruction of the fallopian tubes is often found in gynecological practice. Pathology is represented by partial or complete closure of the lumen of the tubes. This problem is a consequence of diseases of the female reproductive system and causes infertility.

Disease danger

Normally, in a healthy female body, ovulation occurs in the middle of the menstrual cycle. The ovum released during the rupture of the follicle moves through the tubes of the uterus to its cavity. Spermatozoa that enter the vagina are sent for fertilization to the egg through the fallopian tubes. After the egg has been transformed into an embryo, it continues to move towards the uterus. This process takes about a week. The unfertilized egg dies.

Fallopian tube obstruction

In the case of inactivity, rigidity, blockage of one or both tubes, a woman has problems with the onset of pregnancy, since the egg loses the ability to move to the uterus. This does not pose a danger to the female body, but causes tubal-peritoneal infertility.

According to medical statistics, 15% of married couples have female infertility, and 25% of all cases are due to problems with impaired tubal patency. Often this condition occurs as a complication of inflammation of the appendages or is caused by an ectopic pregnancy. In the latter case, an operation is performed to remove one pipe.

Stages of the disease

Gynecologists distinguish the following stages of obstruction of the fallopian tubes :

  • complete. Indicates that there was a complete closure of the lumen. Even the liquid is not able to penetrate into the uterine cavity. The onset of fertilization is excluded;
  • partial, which is a narrowing of the lumen of the organ. The egg loses the ability to enter the uterus, but the spermatozoa have the opportunity to get through the narrowed area of the tube and fertilize the egg. This form causes an ectopic pregnancy.

With partial blockage of both tubes, there is a high probability of pregnancy. When one organ is completely closed, and the second is partially clogged, then the possibility of conception is average. With one healthy appendage, and the second – partially closed, there is a high probability of conception. Complete blockage of both tubes indicates absolute infertility.

Symptoms

This disease can occur without any clinical picture. It does not affect the condition of the woman, does not worsen her well-being. It happens that a young married couple is not yet planning the birth of a child and is being protected from pregnancy. When there is a desire to have a child, then conception does not occur. After the diagnostic procedures performed, obstruction of the fallopian tubes is determined.

If the pathology is caused by frequently recurring gynecological diseases of an inflammatory nature, then the presence of the following symptoms can suggest a problem:

  • drawing pains in the abdomen;
  • painful menstruation;
  • discomfort during sexual contact.

The main symptom of the pathology is the lack of conception with regular sexual intercourse, without contraception, throughout the year.

Causes

You can judge the presence of this pathology if, as a result of a medical examination, the following problems were found:

  • complete obstruction;
  • the presence of one impassable pipe;
  • adhesive process near the appendages;
  • pipe size reduction. Against this background, the movement of the egg to the uterine cavity is difficult. This condition causes an ectopic pregnancy;
  • disturbed activity of the villi. As a result, the tubes lose the ability to capture the embryo and direct it to the uterus.

Pathology develops as a result of a blockage inside the organ and adhesions that squeeze it from the outside. The disease occurs against the background of the following reasons:

  • inflammation of the appendages. Pathogenic microorganisms and their metabolic products clog the narrow lumen of the organ. If timely treatment is not started, then scarring forms on the walls of the epithelium – an adhesive process, leading to the impossibility of pregnancy;
  • genital tuberculosis. The disease is caused by Koch’s wand. It leads to abnormal development of the appendages, uterus.

Other causes of pathology include the following processes:

  • consequences of abortion;
  • ectopic pregnancy;
  • uterine polyps;
  • venereal diseases;
  • neoplasms;
  • congenital abnormal structure of the fallopian tubes;
  • consequences of surgery on the pelvic organs.

Tubal obstruction may occur after removal of uterine fibroids.

The risk of impossibility of pregnancy increases as a result of a tubal blockage formed during inflammation of the appendages. If inflammation occurs once, then the possibility of developing pathology manifests itself in 12% of cases. With repeated inflammation of the appendages, this probability is 35%. If the disease had three episodes – 75%. As a result of an acute inflammatory process, there is a need for surgical intervention for the removal of appendages. In this situation, it is not possible to conceive a child naturally.

Diagnostics

Diagnosis of obstruction of the fallopian tubes

If pregnancy does not occur within a year, a consultation with a gynecologist is required, who will prescribe a diagnosis to determine what caused this problem. First of all, the patient will be sent for a transvaginal ultrasound of the pelvic organs to determine the presence of regular ovulation. For the same purpose, she can independently measure body temperature regularly for several months in the morning immediately after waking up. Next, the sexual partner gives a spermogram.

If, with regular ovulation and normal analysis of the ejaculate, conception does not occur, then the woman is sent for an additional study to determine the condition of the tubes.

  • It is not possible to detect pathology through conventional ultrasound. For this purpose, you can use the UZGSS, which gives a general idea of the state of the organs. It is a safe, painless method that can be repeated multiple times.
  • HSG – X-ray with a contrast agent injected into the uterine cavity. It is carried out under local anesthesia. During the diagnosis, images are taken in several projections.
  • Laparoscopy is considered an accurate method for determining the nature of infertility, which is not only diagnostic, but also therapeutic. By carrying out laparoscopy, it is possible to cauterize endometriosis, dissect the adhesive process. The procedure is performed exclusively under general anesthesia.
  • Fertiloscopy allows you to view the female reproductive system through small incisions in the vagina.

After a comprehensive examination, doctors offer a choice of treatment method. With obstruction of the fallopian tubes, there is no standard treatment regimen, therefore, during therapy, regular evaluation of its effectiveness and correction is necessary.

Therapy

Methods for the treatment of obstruction of the fallopian tubes

For women under 35 years of age with partial obstruction, conservative therapy is recommended, during which medications of the following groups are prescribed:

  • anti-inflammatory in the form of suppositories and tablets, if the cause of the pathology was the growth of pathogenic microorganisms;
  • hormonal agents, if the problem arose against the background of hormonal failure;
  • placental drugs with subcutaneous administration can reduce the inflammatory process, dissolve adhesions;
  • sedatives normalize the general condition of a woman, have a beneficial effect on the mental state;
  • immunostimulants increase the protective functions of the body;
  • vitamin complexes with calcium to increase immunity to inflammatory processes.

Simultaneously with conservative treatment, physiotherapy is prescribed in the form of gynecological massage, electrophoresis, electrical stimulation of the uterus. Physiotherapy is perfectly combined not only with conservative therapy, but also with surgical intervention. With its help, the inflammatory process decreases, adhesions resolve, acute symptoms are removed.

With complete obstruction, surgical intervention is prescribed, which mechanically removes obstacles in the lumen of the organ. The main types of surgical interventions are the following methods:

  • laparoscopy, which can be performed through the vagina, incisions in the abdominal cavity;
  • laparotomy in the form of a dissection of the abdominal wall. This operation is used for neoplasms, peritonitis;
  • reconstructive methods artificially expand the lumen of the organ.

Surgery is not indicated for all women. In some situations, it can only cause harm. In this case, when asked how to get pregnant with tubal blockage, doctors recommend IVF.

In gynecological diseases, the use of folk remedies is based on the use of medicinal herbs. From them prepare infusions, decoctions for douching, the introduction of tampons. When blocking the fallopian tubes, these methods do not give a positive effect. The woman will miss the time, the pathology will take a more serious form. In this case, the upland uterus plant is considered especially dangerous, which is recommended as a remedy for infertility. In this situation, it can lead to an ectopic pregnancy.

Any therapy with folk remedies should be agreed with the gynecologist. Often gynecological diseases are treated by douching with decoctions of herbs. But in this way, the likelihood of injury to the vagina, the development of dysbacteriosis, leading to inflammation of the female reproductive system, increases. Blockage of the fallopian tubes is a serious pathology that occurs in women and is not always treatable even by surgery.

Video

Read more: ectopic pregnancy

Obstruction of the fallopian tubes – causes and treatment

25.05.2022 0 By admin

Obstruction of the fallopian tubes is often found in gynecological practice. Pathology is represented by partial or complete closure of the lumen of the tubes. This problem is a consequence of diseases of the female reproductive system and causes infertility.

Disease danger

Normally, in a healthy female body, ovulation occurs in the middle of the menstrual cycle. The ovum released during the rupture of the follicle moves through the tubes of the uterus to its cavity. Spermatozoa that enter the vagina are sent for fertilization to the egg through the fallopian tubes. After the egg has been transformed into an embryo, it continues to move towards the uterus. This process takes about a week. The unfertilized egg dies.

Fallopian tube obstruction

In the case of inactivity, rigidity, blockage of one or both tubes, a woman has problems with the onset of pregnancy, since the egg loses the ability to move to the uterus. This does not pose a danger to the female body, but causes tubal-peritoneal infertility.

According to medical statistics, 15% of married couples have female infertility, and 25% of all cases are due to problems with impaired tubal patency. Often this condition occurs as a complication of inflammation of the appendages or is caused by an ectopic pregnancy. In the latter case, an operation is performed to remove one pipe.

Stages of the disease

Gynecologists distinguish the following stages of obstruction of the fallopian tubes :

  • complete. Indicates that there was a complete closure of the lumen. Even the liquid is not able to penetrate into the uterine cavity. The onset of fertilization is excluded;
  • partial, which is a narrowing of the lumen of the organ. The egg loses the ability to enter the uterus, but the spermatozoa have the opportunity to get through the narrowed area of the tube and fertilize the egg. This form causes an ectopic pregnancy.

With partial blockage of both tubes, there is a high probability of pregnancy. When one organ is completely closed, and the second is partially clogged, then the possibility of conception is average. With one healthy appendage, and the second – partially closed, there is a high probability of conception. Complete blockage of both tubes indicates absolute infertility.

Symptoms

This disease can occur without any clinical picture. It does not affect the condition of the woman, does not worsen her well-being. It happens that a young married couple is not yet planning the birth of a child and is being protected from pregnancy. When there is a desire to have a child, then conception does not occur. After the diagnostic procedures performed, obstruction of the fallopian tubes is determined.

If the pathology is caused by frequently recurring gynecological diseases of an inflammatory nature, then the presence of the following symptoms can suggest a problem:

  • drawing pains in the abdomen;
  • painful menstruation;
  • discomfort during sexual contact.

The main symptom of the pathology is the lack of conception with regular sexual intercourse, without contraception, throughout the year.

Causes

You can judge the presence of this pathology if, as a result of a medical examination, the following problems were found:

  • complete obstruction;
  • the presence of one impassable pipe;
  • adhesive process near the appendages;
  • pipe size reduction. Against this background, the movement of the egg to the uterine cavity is difficult. This condition causes an ectopic pregnancy;
  • disturbed activity of the villi. As a result, the tubes lose the ability to capture the embryo and direct it to the uterus.

Pathology develops as a result of a blockage inside the organ and adhesions that squeeze it from the outside. The disease occurs against the background of the following reasons:

  • inflammation of the appendages. Pathogenic microorganisms and their metabolic products clog the narrow lumen of the organ. If timely treatment is not started, then scarring forms on the walls of the epithelium – an adhesive process, leading to the impossibility of pregnancy;
  • genital tuberculosis. The disease is caused by Koch’s wand. It leads to abnormal development of the appendages, uterus.

Other causes of pathology include the following processes:

  • consequences of abortion;
  • ectopic pregnancy;
  • uterine polyps;
  • venereal diseases;
  • neoplasms;
  • congenital abnormal structure of the fallopian tubes;
  • consequences of surgery on the pelvic organs.

Tubal obstruction may occur after removal of uterine fibroids.

The risk of impossibility of pregnancy increases as a result of a tubal blockage formed during inflammation of the appendages. If inflammation occurs once, then the possibility of developing pathology manifests itself in 12% of cases. With repeated inflammation of the appendages, this probability is 35%. If the disease had three episodes – 75%. As a result of an acute inflammatory process, there is a need for surgical intervention for the removal of appendages. In this situation, it is not possible to conceive a child naturally.

Diagnostics

Diagnosis of obstruction of the fallopian tubes

If pregnancy does not occur within a year, a consultation with a gynecologist is required, who will prescribe a diagnosis to determine what caused this problem. First of all, the patient will be sent for a transvaginal ultrasound of the pelvic organs to determine the presence of regular ovulation. For the same purpose, she can independently measure body temperature regularly for several months in the morning immediately after waking up. Next, the sexual partner gives a spermogram.

If, with regular ovulation and normal analysis of the ejaculate, conception does not occur, then the woman is sent for an additional study to determine the condition of the tubes.

  • It is not possible to detect pathology through conventional ultrasound. For this purpose, you can use the UZGSS, which gives a general idea of the state of the organs. It is a safe, painless method that can be repeated multiple times.
  • HSG – X-ray with a contrast agent injected into the uterine cavity. It is carried out under local anesthesia. During the diagnosis, images are taken in several projections.
  • Laparoscopy is considered an accurate method for determining the nature of infertility, which is not only diagnostic, but also therapeutic. By carrying out laparoscopy, it is possible to cauterize endometriosis, dissect the adhesive process. The procedure is performed exclusively under general anesthesia.
  • Fertiloscopy allows you to view the female reproductive system through small incisions in the vagina.

After a comprehensive examination, doctors offer a choice of treatment method. With obstruction of the fallopian tubes, there is no standard treatment regimen, therefore, during therapy, regular evaluation of its effectiveness and correction is necessary.

Therapy

Methods for the treatment of obstruction of the fallopian tubes

For women under 35 years of age with partial obstruction, conservative therapy is recommended, during which medications of the following groups are prescribed:

  • anti-inflammatory in the form of suppositories and tablets, if the cause of the pathology was the growth of pathogenic microorganisms;
  • hormonal agents, if the problem arose against the background of hormonal failure;
  • placental drugs with subcutaneous administration can reduce the inflammatory process, dissolve adhesions;
  • sedatives normalize the general condition of a woman, have a beneficial effect on the mental state;
  • immunostimulants increase the protective functions of the body;
  • vitamin complexes with calcium to increase immunity to inflammatory processes.

Simultaneously with conservative treatment, physiotherapy is prescribed in the form of gynecological massage, electrophoresis, electrical stimulation of the uterus. Physiotherapy is perfectly combined not only with conservative therapy, but also with surgical intervention. With its help, the inflammatory process decreases, adhesions resolve, acute symptoms are removed.

With complete obstruction, surgical intervention is prescribed, which mechanically removes obstacles in the lumen of the organ. The main types of surgical interventions are the following methods:

  • laparoscopy, which can be performed through the vagina, incisions in the abdominal cavity;
  • laparotomy in the form of a dissection of the abdominal wall. This operation is used for neoplasms, peritonitis;
  • reconstructive methods artificially expand the lumen of the organ.

Surgery is not indicated for all women. In some situations, it can only cause harm. In this case, when asked how to get pregnant with tubal blockage, doctors recommend IVF.

In gynecological diseases, the use of folk remedies is based on the use of medicinal herbs. From them prepare infusions, decoctions for douching, the introduction of tampons. When blocking the fallopian tubes, these methods do not give a positive effect. The woman will miss the time, the pathology will take a more serious form. In this case, the upland uterus plant is considered especially dangerous, which is recommended as a remedy for infertility. In this situation, it can lead to an ectopic pregnancy.

Any therapy with folk remedies should be agreed with the gynecologist. Often gynecological diseases are treated by douching with decoctions of herbs. But in this way, the likelihood of injury to the vagina, the development of dysbacteriosis, leading to inflammation of the female reproductive system, increases. Blockage of the fallopian tubes is a serious pathology that occurs in women and is not always treatable even by surgery.

Video

Read more: ectopic pregnancy