What should be normal discharge in women24.05.2022
Normal discharge in women is the main indicator of the health of the reproductive system. The appearance of atypical symptoms, a change in the consistency and structure of vaginal discharge indicates physiological or pathological disorders. A change in the nature of the vaginal secret occurs in 85% of all clinical cases. Almost every gynecological disease is accompanied by the appearance of specific symptoms and changes in discharge.
Features of discharge in women
The vaginal secret – otherwise, whites – is produced by special glands located in the submucosal layer of the cervix, the vestibule of the vagina. The secret has a mucous consistency, contains a small amount of effusion of the vessels of the walls of the vagina, uterus. The main task of mucus is to protect against drying out of the mucous membranes of the genital tract, the penetration of pathogenic microflora. It has been proven that women who wash themselves 10 times a day, douching frequently to remove whiter, most often suffer from genital infections.
The color of normal discharge depends on the age, clinical and obstetric history of the woman.
During the day, the body of a healthy woman secretes about 2-5 ml of mucous secretion. The daily volume can change when excited during intercourse, ovulation, at different stages of pregnancy. The composition of vaginal mucus is also different:
- epithelial cells;
- conditionally pathogenic microflora.
The vaginal environment includes up to 12 different microorganisms: some coccal bacteria, fungi, viruses. If their volume increases, then an inflammatory process develops.
In young women, the vagina is inhabited by lactic acid microflora. The uterus, cervical canal, ovaries, fallopian tubes are sterile. In the structure of whites, foreign impurities should not be present. It is important for women to control discharge, to exclude factors leading to the inflammatory process.
What should be the allocation
There are several criteria by which you can evaluate the nature of the discharge and correlate them with the norm:
- color – depending on the day of the cycle, the shade varies, it can be white, yellowish, creamy or completely transparent;
- smell – given the predominance of a lactic acid environment in the vaginal cavity, normal leucorrhea may have a slightly acidic odor;
- volume – the secretion of mucous secretion is moderate, the amount is not scarce and not excessive.
The addition of itching, redness, and other unpleasant symptoms is a reason to see a doctor.
Normal indicators are affected not only by biochemical factors, but also by hormonal levels, age, sexual activity, anamnesis of life, anatomy of the genital tract.
Normal discharge during menstruation
The nature of menstrual flow in the active phase of the cycle is also an indicator of a woman’s health. Normal discharge in women has the following criteria:
- the duration of bleeding varies from 4 to 8 days, menstruation is stable, occurs on time;
- lack of pronounced pain;
- homogeneity of the structure without large clots, which are an accumulation of dead endometrium;
- the color of the discharge turns brown at the end of menstruation, the active phase ends with spotting.
For the whole menstrual cycle, up to 250-300 ml of blood is released, which is considered the norm. A healthy female body is ready to make up for losses, to prevent the development of anemic syndrome.
Periods of changes in the vaginal secretion
Allocations can also vary by day of the cycle. Considering that, on average, a healthy young woman has a cycle of 28 days, it is possible to determine the trend in the change in vaginal secretion according to the day of the cycle phase:
- 1-12 days or phase I of the cycle – the mucous component is liquefied, has a uniform consistency. The appearance of small lumps of the epithelium, a slightly sour smell is allowed.
- 13-15 days or II phase of the cycle – the period of ovulation, when fertilization is possible. The volume of vaginal discharge increases to 4–5 ml per day, the consistency is viscous, which contributes to the best promotion of spermatozoa. The color of the mucus varies from white to beige.
- From 15–16 days, the mucus becomes the most transparent, yellowish. Before menstruation, the addition of blood is permissible, so the leucorrhoea turns brownish.
Changes can be somewhat frightening, but they are all the norm, depending on the health, age of the woman, and also on her hormonal levels. At the same time, the vaginal microflora changes, which is why the toilet of the external genital organs is so important. It is preferable to use sanitary napkins, change them every 3-4 hours depending on the amount of discharge.
Non-pathological causes of changes in leucorrhoea
Mucous vaginal discharge can change under the influence of a number of physiological factors:
- early or late onset of sexual activity;
- frequent change of sexual partners;
- the use of various means to improve sexual contact: gels, stimulant creams, toys;
- gynecological examinations, surgical procedures, catheterization;
- the use of oral contraceptives;
- postpartum period, lactation;
- pregnancy – there is an increase in discharge.
What should be the selection, you need to know in order to notice deviations in time
Psychological discomfort during sexual intercourse, complexes, excessive stress, psycho-emotional instability, bad habits can change the structure of mucus.
There is another reason for deviations from the norm – pathological changes in the organs of the woman’s reproductive system. The following symptoms may indicate the disease:
- milky white intense discharge;
- curdled structure of whiter;
- increase in the daily volume of secretions;
- bad smell;
- dryness of the mucous membranes of the genital tract;
- change in color of the mucous secretion to green, frothy brown, red, orange or yellow.
Structural changes in mucus are often combined with reddening of the genitals, dysuric disorders, fever, pain, burning during urination.
The appearance of an unpleasant odor is a direct evidence of the pathological nature of changes in the vaginal secretion:
- inflammation of the upper or lower urinary tract;
- dysbacteriosis, thrush;
- genital infections of various nature;
- herpetic infection;
- papillomas, polyps;
- cancerous tumors.
To identify the true cause of the pathology, differential diagnosis is required, confirmation of the disease based on laboratory, endoscopic and other research methods. When changing normal discharge, it is important for a woman to immediately contact a gynecologist.
Types of discharge and diseases
By the color of the discharge, various gynecological diseases of an infectious nature can be suspected. There are such types of vaginal discharge:
- Yellow. White whites can be cloudy, barely transparent, but an intense yellow and even orange tint with an unpleasant odor indicates chlamydia, urogenital timoniasis, salpingitis, gonorrhea, vaginosis.
- Greens. The color change to green is due to the high content of leukocytes, dead epithelium. The appearance of green discharge is usually associated with an acute infectious or inflammatory process. The development of cervicitis, cystitis, vulvitis, colpitis is suspected, up to the formation of malignant tumors.
- Milky white. The appearance of milky whites is considered the norm, but subject to a homogeneous consistency, the absence of an unpleasant odor. The curdled consistency directly indicates candidiasis or thrush – a fungal disease.
- Bloody. The appearance of blood in the 1st and 2nd phase of the cycle indicates internal bleeding if the woman is not protected by oral contraceptives. Normally, the appearance of blood from the beginning of taking and after the withdrawal of drugs is attributed to the physiological reaction of the body. In case of scarlet blood discharge, it is imperative to consult a doctor for medical assistance. Perhaps the development of cancer, erosion, endometriosis, hormonal disorders, ectopic pregnancy.
All biochemical changes occur in response to pathological processes, diseases, disorders of a non-infectious nature. If atypical symptoms appear, it is recommended to undergo a routine examination by a gynecologist.
Discharge during pregnancy and after childbirth
The nature of the secret changes immediately after the conception of the child. If the next menstruation does not occur, the mucous secretion thickens, thereby preventing the expulsion of the fetal egg. By the end of the 1st trimester, the discharge decreases. Some increase in discharge is possible in the 3rd trimester and before childbirth. After delivery, mucus is secreted most intensively, including blood, dead epithelium of the uterus and cervical canal. Brownish tint of vaginal secretions can persist for up to 4 weeks.
Norm in menopause
With the extinction of the reproductive function, the body undergoes special changes at the hormonal and physiological levels. The volume of the mucous component is significantly reduced, the whites become transparent, liquid, acquire a yellowish-milky hue.
Normal discharge in women is an indicator of the health of the organs of the reproductive and reproductive systems
The addition of infections, endometriosis, tumors worsens the structure of the mucous secretion. The discharge is often unstable, changing color and smell. With hormonal changes, a change in the structure and consistency of secretions is natural, they are the age norm.
Vaginal discharge is the primary factor in changing the state of a woman’s health, which is why it is so important to take timely measures to eliminate pathological symptoms and the main cause of their appearance.
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