Elevated platelets in a child: causes and therapy24.05.2022
Platelets or platelets are non-cellular components of the blood that provide nutrition to the walls of blood vessels and stop bleeding. Their number depends on various factors. Elevated platelets in a child (thrombocytosis) may indicate inflammation, anemia, and dehydration. Identification of the cause of thrombocytosis allows the doctor to choose an effective therapy. We will tell you what is the norm of platelets in children at different ages, what are the reasons for their increase and possible treatment.
The norm of platelets in children
The number of platelets in the blood depends on a large number of factors. First of all, this indicator is related to the age of the child. Blood analysis in different age groups has the following features:
- in newborns, the number of platelets ranges from 100 to 420 thousand units;
- at the age of 10 days to 12 months, the spread of the norm decreases – 150-350 thousand units;
- children older than a year have a norm indicator close to an adult – from 180 to 320 thousand units.
The normal level of platelets in the blood should be taken into account when interpreting the results of a clinical blood test.
Reasons for the increase
Any parent is interested in what it means to increase the level of platelets in the blood of a child. Doctors identify several possible factors leading to pathological test results:
- a tumor process in the red bone marrow, leading to the accelerated formation of platelets. They enter the blood vessels and lead to symptoms of pathology;
- surgical removal of the spleen, which is responsible for the physiological destruction of platelets;
- acute inflammatory processes associated with infectious diseases or malignant neoplasms;
- anemia of any nature: iron deficiency, hemolytic, after bleeding, etc.
Identifying the specific cause of platelet elevation is essential for safe and effective therapy.
Thrombocytosis is characterized by the following symptoms in children:
- Thrombosis of vessels of internal organs and brain. It leads to oxygen starvation of the organ and its damage. When the arteries of the lower extremities are affected, children complain of itching, pain in the foot. Possible necrosis in the form of gangrene and other purulent complications.
- Bleeding from the nose.
- Bleeding gums.
- Bruising occurs with minor injuries. This is due to the fact that platelets are not functionally capable of stopping hemorrhages.
In addition to signs of thrombocytosis, symptoms of the underlying disease are revealed: fatigue, general weakness, etc.
Medicines are prescribed only by a doctor. They have contraindications that must be observed when using drugs in children.
How to treat?
Treatment should be aimed at eliminating the underlying disease. In order to reduce the number of platelets in the blood, cytotoxic drugs are used. Improving blood circulation in organs and preventing cell necrosis is carried out with the help of medicines that normalize microcirculation.
If a child has severe thrombocytosis, leading to multiple blood clots in the arteries, thrombocytopheresis is performed. The procedure consists in the hardware removal of blood platelets from the blood.
Elevated platelets in a child is not an independent disease, but a manifestation of various pathological conditions. Thrombocytosis may not show symptoms for a long time, but with an increase in the number of platelets, it leads to impaired blood supply to internal organs and soft tissues. Treatment is prescribed to the patient after the identification of the underlying disease. This allows you to adjust the level of platelets and prevent relapses in the future.
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