Causes and methods of treatment of the retention cyst of the ovary

Causes and methods of treatment of the retention cyst of the ovary

24.05.2022 0 By admin
Retention ovarian cyst is a benign tumor. It appears on the gonad from a capsule in which there is liquid. Depending on the type and size of the retention cyst , an individual correction technique is selected.

Types of retention cysts

The term “retention cyst” is generic. It includes various forms of neoplasms located in the ovary. At the same time, the tumors themselves are not a cyst of the ovarian tissues, they have a limited space and, as it were, are adjacent to the sex gland. Tumors are divided into functional and non-functional types.

retention cyst of the ovary

Retention cyst of the ovary often occurs in reproductive age

As a result of the examination, the following cysts can be detected:

  • Luteal. This tumor is diagnosed in women most often. It is a unilateral neoplasm of a small size. Appears as a result of ovulation and the formation of the corpus luteum. Often, a luteal cyst occurs during pregnancy. A functional tumor undergoes regression and disappears on its own within a few months.
  • Follicular. This type of tumor is also functional, but it brings women more problems. A follicular cyst forms on the ovary and is a single-chamber formation filled with fluid. The tumor appears as a result of the rapid growth of the follicle against the background of the absence of an appropriate hormonal background for its disclosure. Most often disappears on its own, but under certain circumstances it may require therapy.
  • Paraovarian ovarian cyst. The tumor is formed in the area of the fallopian tube from the rudiments of ovarian tissue. The basis of the neoplasm is laid even in the period of intrauterine development of the girl. The cyst grows slowly and rarely reaches large sizes. It is found unexpectedly and requires surgical intervention.
  • Tecaluteic. It most often appears during pregnancy and is the result of the effect of chorionic gonadotropin on the tissues of the gonad. The neoplasm can be large, but usually disappears on its own after the restoration of the natural hormonal background.
  • Endometrioma. The tumor is non-functional and occurs as a result of the spread of endometrial cells on the surface of the ovary. This pathology is the result of a severe degree of endometriosis and requires urgent treatment.

A woman cannot determine on her own which cyst appeared on the ovary. For diagnostics, instrumental and hardware methods are used. The results of the survey allow you to determine the need for therapy.


A serous ovarian cyst is most often the result of hormonal changes. Functional tumors appear in women of reproductive age and are rarely found after menopause.

Causes of an ovarian cyst:

  • violation of the production of luteinizing hormone – for the follicular cyst;
  • excess progesterone – for the luteal cyst;
  • increased estrogen levels – for endometrioma;
  • violations in the process of intrauterine development – for the paraovarian cyst.

Predisposing factors are:

  • stressful situations;
  • climate change;
  • head injury;
  • physical exercise;
  • use of oral contraception;
  • the use of certain drugs;
  • inflammatory diseases of the pelvic organs;
  • thyroid pathology;
  • dysfunction of the endocrine apparatus.

During pregnancy, luteal cysts are often found in women, so the gestational period can also be attributed to risk factors.

Characteristic symptoms

Small tumors can exist for a long time without symptoms. Neoplasms are discovered by chance during the next preventive examination.


The cause may be hormonal failure, inflammation or other factors.

The characteristic signs of an ovarian tumor are:

  • Various types of menstrual irregularities. Bloody discharge may appear in the middle of the cycle, be irregular. Also, with cysts, the intensity and duration of menstruation increases.
  • Pain in the abdomen. With an increase in the cyst, it affects neighboring organs and tissues of the abdominal cavity, resulting in irritation of the nerve endings. This leads to pulling, aching, arching pains. Discomfort increases during sexual contact and physical activity.
  • Excretory dysfunction. Large cysts compress the intestines and bladder. This leads to difficulty in the functioning of the excretory system, spontaneous leakage of urine and other signs of disorder.
  • An increase in the volume of the abdomen. This symptom occurs with giant retention cysts. Most often they are faced by overweight women who do not notice other signs of pathology.

More striking signs appear in patients with complications – cyst apoplexy, twisting of the leg, internal hemorrhage, and others.

Diagnosis with retention cyst

Most cystic lesions of the ovaries are accompanied by a similar clinical picture, so it is important to perform a differential diagnosis:

  • bimanual examination – during palpation, the gynecologist probes the tumor, determines its localization and can name the approximate size;
  • Ultrasound – scanning allows you to accurately determine the location of the cyst, assess the echogenicity of the contents and determine the size;
  • laparoscopy – gives maximum information about the tumor, is performed when other research methods are uninformative.

To choose a correction technique, it is important to evaluate the diagnostic results in a complex, take into account the patient’s age and hormonal status.


Retention cysts have a functional or non-functional appearance

Treatment Methods

Treatment of functional tumors is prescribed only if the cysts begin to grow in size and cause concern to the patient. The most commonly used oral contraceptives, which suppress the activity of the ovaries and normalize menstrual function. If within three months drug therapy does not bring the desired result, the gynecologist chooses an alternative tactic of action.

Nonfunctional retention cysts require surgical intervention. Of particular danger to the patient is endometrioma. After surgical removal of the tumor, hormonal correction is prescribed.

Possible Complications

The complication of an ovarian cyst is:

  • apoplexy – the integrity of the capsule is violated, the contents are poured into the abdominal cavity;
  • torsion of the leg – blood circulation in the tumor is disturbed and tissue necrosis develops;
  • suppuration – accompanied by an inflammatory process and the formation of an abscess.

Left untreated, cysts can lead to dysfunction of the reproductive system, serious hormonal disruptions, and even infertility.

The retention cyst is not considered a dangerous tumor. A neoplasm often occurs in women, and with the functional nature of the origin, it disappears on its own. It is important to observe the behavior of the cyst over several cycles. With active growth, treatment is required.


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